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Toward a Scientific and Engineering Discipline of Cyber-Physical Systems

Note: This article was originally published in ACM Transactions on Cyber-Physical Systems. The citation of and the link to the original article: C. Lu, Toward a Scientific and Engineering Discipline of Cyber-Physical Systems, ACM Transactions on Cyber-Physical Systems, 5(3), Article 22e, July 2021. Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are driving a wide range of exciting applications from smart […]

New Blog Editors

About two years ago, as new members of the SIGBED executive committee (EC), we decided to replace the SIGBED review with a blog that could serve as an informal medium for the SIGBED community. After receiving input from the SIGBED EC members and months of preparation, we finally launched the blog in April 2020. So […]

The “Android” for Autonomous Vehicles

In RTAS 2021, we organized a panel discussion on “RTOS for Autonomous Machines”. The panelists are Shinpei Kato (The University of Tokyo & Tier IV, Inc.), Andrei Kholodnyi (Wind River Systems), Shaoshan Liu (PerceptIn), Jan Staschulat (Robert Bosch GmbH), and Richard West (Boston University). An interesting topic discussed during the panel is “Will there be […]

COVID Infection Prediction using CPS Formal Verification Methods

  Formal verification of cyber-physical systems (CPS) requires reasoning methods for not just software, but also analyzing how the physical side of the system will behave. As the laws of nature are written in differential equations, CPS formal verification researchers have inevitably needed to create analysis methods that can analyze systems with differential equations. For […]

Real-Time Edge Intelligence

This article argues that a key new frontier for the real-time systems research community lies in developing the architectural and algorithmic foundations of real-time artificial intelligence. As always, by “real-time” we do not mean fast (or “streaming”), but rather “with a capability to respond predictably to different urgency (and criticality) requirements”. A key challenge in […]


For most of my professional research career, I have sought more deterministic mechanisms for solving various engineering problems. My focus has always been on systems that combine the clean and neat world of computation with the messy and unpredictable physical world (cyber-physical systems). Given the messiness and unpredictability of the real world, why the obsession […]

Robot Learning meets Formal Specifications: Designing Safer Embedded Software in the age of AI

Introduction There is considerable interest to use modules developed using deep learning in embedded software for complex cyber-physical systems (CPS) such as automobiles, aerial vehicles, and robots. Traditionally, such CPS applications have relied on human supervision for defining high-level plans, while using automated control techniques for lower level tasks; e.g., humans driving automobiles or pilots […]

From the Editors: The First Year Report

No one will forget 2020. The pandemic forced most of us to stay at home and we all had to learn new ways to do things that we used to do in-person: conferences, classes, meetings, etc. Against the backdrop of this pandemic, we launched the SIGBED blog in April 2020 with an aim to provide [...]

What is the real-time cloud and how do we get there?

This post was originally published on the Ericsson blog. Emerging real-time systems such as smart manufacturing demand millisecond latency, something which cannot be guaranteed by today’s cloud services. But what if we could replace these models with a new computing paradigm – ingrained within the network, offering real-time compute? Welcome to the real-time cloud.   [...]

Cyber-Physical Systems embody the battle between Self-Awareness and Context-Awareness

I like to think about research on CPS as a battle for the survival of the world as we know it and being fought on multiple fronts. Much like in a Tolkienian world, the battlefield is lined with individuals, i.e. researchers, holstering unique abilities. Schedulability analysis brandished by Ents, Elves in charge of static WCET [...]

The Need for Empirical Survey-based Research

I have worked in research for a decade and a half, and I am privileged to have been a part of different research communities during this time. As a researcher, I was born in the design automation community, but I got increasingly involved in the real-time community as I grew up. This was very interesting [...]

Shaping the future of real-time conferences on principles of transparency, equity, and inclusivity

The TCRTS Conferences Planning Sub-Committee is responsible for determining the policies for TCRTS sponsored conferences including the Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS) and the Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS). In doing so in 2020, we have been guided by three key principles: Transparency, meaning openly sharing information; Equity, meaning fair and respectful treatment […]

The Dirichlet Rescale (DRS) algorithm: a general-purpose method underpinning synthetic task set generation

  Generating utilization vectors The real-time systems research literature is full of papers on scheduling policies and schedulability analyses, covering a wide variety of different task and systems models, and analysis methods. There is however one key aspect that the vast majority of these works have in common, and that is the need for a [...]

embedded systems

EMSOFT 2020 PC Chair’s Report

EMSOFT, the ACM SIGBED International Conference on Embedded Software, is one of the three core conferences of the annual Embedded Systems Week (ESWEEK). The other two conferences are CASES, the International Conference on Compilers, Architecture and Synthesis, and CODES+ISSS, the International Conference on Hardware/Software Codesign and System Synthesis. The 16th edition of ESWEEK and the […]

The 41st IEEE Real-Time System Symposium RTSS 2020

Not able to organize an in-person conference during COVID-19, does not mean that the online conference cannot be an interactive, social, and a wholesome experience. RTSS 2020 – the flagship conference in real-time systems – intends to change your perception about that. RTSS 2020 organizers are focused on making this conference a unique experience, not [...]

No Safety without (Cyber-)Security!

It’s a common experience: I talk to people developing safety-critical embedded systems, be it cars or medical devices, and, while clearly serious about product safety, they show little interest in security. A great example was when, as a part of an delegation of Australian academicians, I visited an automotive testing facility in another country. They […]

Analyzing Expensive Real-Time Task Models Inexpensively?

Many real-time systems are safe-critical, so their timing correctness must be ensured under any circumstance at runtime. To guarantee this, we should describe the system behavior by some rigorous models, based on which properties of interests can be proved. Research on formal modeling and analysis of real-time systems has been done in, at least, two research areas: real-time scheduling and model-checking.

How I ended up in the ACM SRC grand finals

My PhD research project targeted publications in leading bioinformatics and science journals. I was very keen to witness a mainstream computer science conference since I had never been to one. Last year, one of our collaborative papers got accepted into ESWEEK 2019. I was planning on taking this opportunity and attending the conference when my labmate, Hassaan Saadat, who had experienced the ins and outs of ACM/IEEE conferences knew of the ACM SRC at ESWEEK (through one of his colleagues at Arizona State University – Sumit Kumar Mandal) and encouraged my participation. This itself was a sufficient reason for me to attend ESWEEK 2019, and without any delay, I prepared and submitted the required abstract.

illustration of a periodic task

Liu and Layland and Linux: A Blueprint for “Proper” Real-Time Tasks

I think it’s fun to see this diversity also reflected in the SIGBED Blog. So for a change of pace, today I wanted to have a look at something a bit more technical and hands-on — specifically, a primer on how to connect the models studied in the real-time systems literature to actual running code.

Time-predictable hardware acceleration: we should not overlook FPGA-based SoC

“Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are facing revolution […]”: it is with a sentence like this one that many scientific papers published in these years begin to introduce new results of disparate kinds. Well, I do not want to sound rhetorical nor to bore the reader from the very beginning, but I think that also this post [...]

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Toward a Scientific and Engineering Discipline of Cyber-Physical Systems

New Blog Editors

The “Android” for Autonomous Vehicles